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Published Sources Detail

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Ancient Hula Type Name
Click to hear the pronunciation
Hula `O`opa (Dance as lame person)

Further Detail
In Hula `O`opa, the dancer takes on the form of a crippled person. The general body position is a low stance, with creeping and crouching movements.

Specific steps are associated with this hula type, such as a duck walk (extremely low to ground), crouching step where knee touches the ground, low step where knees cross, a sliding-type step, and a limping movement with the weight shifted unequally.

These movements are purposefully done when called for in a particular chant in which a character is `o`opa. This hula type may have been uniquely named as such by Nona Beamer through her work with the chant "Keawe `O`opa." The chant is recognized in other documentation, just not as a Hula `O`opa.

General Body Position: Kü (standing)
Can be for Game, Pastime, or Sport: No
Implement or Instrument: No

Published Research Sources

Hawaiian Dictionary (Puku`i/Elbert)
- Dictionary lists the meanings of "`o`opa" as "lame, crippled, a cripple, lame person, to limp, be lame." There is no listing for "Hula `O`opa."

Nä Mele Hula volume 1 (Beamer)
- Volume I contains one Hula `O`opa on pages 14-15, entitled "Keawe `O`opa." Beamer offers chant background, full text with translation, and her chant melody. This chant is also a Hula Ali`i, as it is dedicated to Lili`uokalani.

Hula Pahu volume 1 (Kaeppler)
- Page 253, footnote 20 notes that lower-body exit movements for chant "Keawe `O`opa" may be based on Hula Pahu step "`ai kupe." Footage is available in Mader Collection at Bishop Museum. Ancient hula type, Hula `O`opa, is not specifically mentioned.

Sacred Hula: The Historical Hula `Äla`apapa (Stillman)
- Page 30 refers to the chant associated with Hula `O`opa, namely "Keawe `O`opa." It is referenced with Hula Ho`i (exit dance), where the dancers exit using a "squatting walk." The hula type under discussion here is not explicitly mentioned.

Additional Notes
Please see "Published Sources" section above for greater detail on where to find documented research on this Hula Type.

Please also consult the "Kupuna" section at bottom to read and hear what our elders have to share.


Related Chants
Keawe `O`opa (Keawe the lame one)

Related Implements/Instruments

Related Küpuna
Beamer, Nona Kapuailohiamanonokalani Desha
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